Data Communications: Market Competition 1969-1972
Modems and Multiplexers
3.6 Codex Turns the Corner: 1970
Carr knew he had to deliver or his days with Codex were
numbered -- Cryer had made that abundantly clear. Carr’s ears rang from
Cryer’s blistering tirades: “I want to see results and I don’t want to
hear again about needing a 4800 bps modem.” Carr understood that Codex
faced a cash crisis, one stressing Cryer, but he expected a little empathy
for the uphill battles he and his salesmen waged every day. Competition
had never been more intense and if rumor had it correctly, Milgo would
soon introduce a 9600 bps modem, eliminating Codex’s one truly unique advantage.
"What was happening
was Bell people would go around and say: "Look,
if 9600 was possible, AT&T would have done it. We have Bell Labs." Scared
the hell out of the customer. Milgo
would go out and say: "Don't
buy two of these spooky things, buy four 48's."
In February 1970, Carr and Pugh scheduled a product-planning
meeting to discuss the future of the AE-96. No one anticipated a meeting
any different from the many other meetings they had shoe-horned into days
routinely stretching into late nights, but history would judge differently,
for decisions were made that set Codex on the path to becoming the world’s
largest independent data communications firm.
Refreshingly, after so many meetings devoted to yet
another AE-96 crisis, the subject concerned the future and what Codex should
do as an encore now that they had a product that worked, at least most
of the time. After some light-hearted banter, and before the conversation
could turn serious, Carr turned crusader once again, arguing that the sales
force did not need an improved 9600 bps modem, at least not immediately,
but rather they needed more products to sell - specifically a 4800 bps
modem. Cryer, stubborn as Carr, repeated the obvious: they had barely enough
cash to survive selling the products they had and certainly not enough
to develop and launch a new product. He concluded with the now expected
speech that the credo of Codex was to advance the state-of-the-art not
to mimic the latest products of so-called competitors. And furthermore,
how could Codex sell me-too products if they couldn’t even sell the world’s
most advanced modem?
Before the meeting could turn into another pointless
standoff, Forney, who had become involved with modems again after Holsinger’s
departure, suggested that maybe it need not be an either-or choice. He
described a new technology being developed by Gallager, code named Modem-X,
which was very different than the single sideband technology used in the
AE-96 -- a technology with which a competitive 4800 bps modem could not
be built. Forney believed the Modem-X technology, which would
become known as Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM), could be the basis
for both a better 4800 bps and a significantly improved 9600 bps modem.
After lengthy discussion, Cryer relented, authorizing
Forney to lead an effort to build first a 4800 bps and following that a
9600 bps modem using the Modem-X technology. Why did Cryer finally give
in? Carr recalls:
pressure from me, and the fact that we had a very bad year in '69. We were
losing money, and had a bad negative cash flow. And I said: "Look,
one thing about this, whether it's challenging to you or not, Jim, I can
sell it. I can collect from people for it without umpty-ump months of testing."
Unknown to Carr, Cryer had already concluded that Carr
had to be fired. However, he also knew he had to raise more money, and
firing the VP of Sales immediately prior to a financing was a sure way
to stall investors’ decisions until a new VP was hired, a delay he could
not afford. He also did not want to hear potential investors parrot Carr’s
insistence on the need for a 4800 bps modem. Fortunately, Forney had proposed
a most ingenious solution: a potentially radical new technology to advance
the state-of-art of 9600 bps modems, and also a virtually risk-free means
to innovate a competitive 4800 bps modem. Carr seemed to win the day, but
for reasons he did not yet understand.
Pugh charged off to create both product specifications.
Benefiting from the year of selling - and not selling - the AE-96, the
specifications would focus on ease of installation, use, and service. Able
to specify precise performance and quality measurements, Pugh set technical
objectives that would make the new modems significantly better than the
AE-96. Pugh also needed to project how many of each modem would be sold.
Carr remembers his and the financial officer, Jim Storey's, reactions to
"I asked John Pugh
to produce a forecast for how many 9600's we could sell, and his forecast
was 465 for the life of the machine, and we all sat around my conference
table and howled laughing. We thought, and I'll never forget it, I can
see it like it was yesterday -- we had sold and made stay 70 some AE-96s,
so he was talking something like four times what we had done, and we thought
it was so goddamned hilarious. We could believe that kind of a number for
4800's, and Storey ridiculed the hell out of him. It's a legend around
Codex about this meeting, where we all laughed at John."
Forney had started work immediately, knowing Codex's
future depended on his success. Sales of the existing AE-96 were nowhere
near sufficient to support the company financially. Government contracts
were a luxury of the past, and financial projections indicated Codex would
be out of cash in a few months, and unable to meet their bank’s requirements
to borrow money.
Lacking alternatives, Cryer and Storey began discussions
with their investment bankers, Kuhn, Loeb & Co., hoping to raise the
equity capital needed to finance operations. By the end of March, terms
were finalized and the closing scheduled for April 6th. With their money
problems soon to be over, management sighed a collective relief.
Carr then left for Hawaii to attend a military conference.
He had been trying to sell the military a way to create more communication
circuits, or channels, out of existing circuits -- the military had a desperate
need of more international circuits as a consequence of the Vietnam War.
Carr believed if he could sell the “channel packing” concept, it might
generate desperately needed revenues and cash flow. Since most of those
in the chain of command he needed to convince were attending the Hawaiian
conference, he hoped he might pull one more order out of the military,
an order that would give Codex breathing room until their new modems were
After encouraging meetings, Carr returned home on Sunday
April 5th to be available, if needed, for the closing of the financing
on Monday. Tired from the long trip, he was greeted at his front door by
an anxious baby sitter with a handful of phone messages marked Urgent.
His first call back left him stunned. Earlier that day, Jim Cryer had died
from a heart attack while playing tennis. An emergency Board of Directors
meeting was to be held the next day.
That Monday morning the shock of Jim's death crowded
out the stress everyone had been feeling. No one knew what to say. The
Board members offered their condolences to the staff, and awkwardly drifted
into the conference room, trying to collect their thoughts before the meeting
began. Kohlenberg, weakened by Hodgkin’s disease, came in, knowing the
company he helped found was deep in crisis.
Once the meeting was called to order, the representatives
of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. explained that under the circumstances it would
be impossible to close the financing. A new investment memorandum had to
be written and circulated. Realistically, it would be months before a financing
might close. After a few blank stares, the bankers left, and the conversation
turned to: Who was to run the company? What was to be done about cash? Carr remembers what happened then:
"I found out, much
to my surprise that day, that I was right at the top of the shit list,
that I was about to be fired because the view of the board was that I had
joined the company and I had pissed all this money away and not brought
in any business, which was accurate, although there were, God knows, an
awful lot of other flaws in the company, like the product didn't work and
we couldn't build it and a few other trivial things like that. But just
about every VP of Sales along Route 128 was being fired anyway, in those
days. So I was literally within days of being canned when poor Jim dropped
So I walked into this
board meeting, but hardly anybody was talking to me. And I'll never forget,
Arthur [Kohlenberg] came in that day, because of this tragedy, and the
man was shaking like a leaf. He was in terrible shape. He was watching
all of this, and after a while -- and he was always known as Arthur and
I was always known as Art. He said: "You
know, there's something I don't understand here. Why are you being unpleasant
The guy that was called
the chairman, a fellow named Tom Meloy who was a legend in his own right,
launched into this: "He's pissed away all this money and not sold
and Arthur really lit into him, that they didn't know what was going on,
that you can't sell something that doesn't work. He told them about the
equalizers that didn't converge and the whole nine yards, and when he got
all done, probably a three or four minute monologue, he was so exhausted
that he had to leave, and he said something like:
"You stick with
this guy. It's not his problem," and so on, and he left. That was
the last time I ever saw him alive, because he died that July. He was never
able to come back to work after that meeting."
The Board elected Jim Storey Chief Financial Officer,
or COO. Carr was neither fired nor made to feel welcomed. Carr continues:
"The next month
after Jim died, the Penn Central [a major railroad corporation] went bankrupt,
and the whole spring of '70 was sort of the bottom of that whole thing
and it was doomsday everywhere." A few weeks went by and Kuhn, Loeb sent
this book up that had no more correspondence to Codex than if I wrote a
book [investment memorandum] about whales. We looked at it and said: 'What
the hell is this?'
So the next thing that
happened was, they said: "You're
the goddamn salesman, so you write a memorandum, and you go sell some stock."
And Fulton Rockwell, who was individual self-made venture capitalist on
the board and investor in the company, he and I were designated by the
board to go raise this money. Kuhn, Loeb threw up their hands. They said: "You
can see, we not only don't know anything about the company, we can't raise
the money. We just can't make
these phone calls anymore, and if we've got to do it the real way, we don't
know how to do that for a company like this," so Fulton and I were
designated to go raise some money. I didn't know anything about raising
money, memorandums or any of that stuff. So I sat down and wrote this memorandum.
Along about the summer,
Fulton and I went out and basically got thrown out of every place we went
to trying to sell this sick company for -- to get a half million dollars
of working capital!
Our concept was to go
get $600,000, and when somebody told us how many shares we had to give
them to get $600,000, that's what we would do. It was in that state. In
the meantime, we didn't have any cash, because we needed the cash when
Jim was going to close it, so every two weeks, Jerry Katzin and Storey
and I would go down to the First of Boston, and we would beg for some payroll,
and they would tell us that we couldn't have it. "Get some equity," and
we'd show them the memorandum. This was a regular ritual.
'"Then sell the
and we said we would sell the company to anybody that will buy it, "just
give us a couple of weeks payroll," and that went on every couple
of weeks. We offered the company to Raytheon. We offered the company to
Damon, who was in the medical lab, blood analysis business; Christ, a rubber
company in Muskegon, which made retreaded tires. Anybody the bank wanted
to us to talk to we would.
We offered the company
to Milgo. We met them in New York, and then they came up and they visited
the building in Newton.”
Forney gave the Milgo executives a briefing and demonstrated
the Modem-X, or QAM, technology. He remembers: “But they turned us down anyway.” ADS executives
also investigated Codex before passing on the opportunity. (ADS and ESE
had used a similar 16-point QAM in their 4800 bps modems as early as 1970.) Why ADS was not interested might be understandable
given they had a similar technology, but Milgo passing is mystifying
with the reasons lost to time.
Meanwhile Forney had a working
4800 bps modem, albeit only a breadboard prototype, one still a long way
from a shippable product. But the prototype worked, and given everyone’s
somber mood, this success represented a small ray of hope. A working prototype
was also the kind of promising news that one would have thought might impress
a potential acquirer of the company.
Near the end of August a financing appeared possible.
The partners of a new venture capital partnership, the Technology Fund,
indicated a strong interest in investing $300,000. Carr remembers the month
"In the beginning
of September, Becker said they would put $300,000 up if A.) I would take
over the company; B.) I would put some of my money in it, which I didn't
have; and C.) we got other investors together for a minimum of $600,000,
which is what Cryer was looking for. I looked at all these numbers and
everything said I would take over only if we raised a million or more,
so we got into this circle problem. So the guy, a fellow named Higgins
that Rockwell turned up, agreed to match Becker, so now we had $600,000,
and then Kuhn, Loeb skinnied around and found enough other people. We actually
I had Fulton Rockwell
sign a note for me at the bank and I borrowed $25,000 and put up my $25,000,
which I wish was $50 or $100,000. I remember my wife asking: "Why
are you going to do this thing?" And I said: "If I do it, we've
got a shot. If I don't do it, we're all out of work. I've
been betting on myself for years, I might as well do this." She said: "What
are the chances?" I said: "This thing looks like a destroyer,
but it behaves like a submarine. That's all I can tell you."
Storey had to step down
from COO, and he and I worked out an arrangement the board OK'd. He was
made Exec VP. He and I had a meeting the night before we signed the papers
for this million-two, and shook hands on the deal, where I'd be one and
he'd be two and we'd not let each other down, even if this thing went astray.
We had been basically enemies up until that time because he was really
trying to hang me out to dry. But it was a great exercise in emergency
behavior. So we raised the money. I took over September 26, 1970. What
we did is I cut the place back. We had, I don't know, probably 135 or 145
people. We cut it down to about 90. We concluded that all of us had to
go back to do what we had done five years earlier to get maximum productivity.
What we did was, we kept the higher priced people, took as many people
out as we had to get the burn rate right. Storey and I became a team that
September, and that team was inseparable for the next fifteen years."
In December 1970, at
the fall Joint Computer Conference trade show in Houston, Texas, Codex
introduced their 4800 bps modem based on the QAM technology. They boldly
named it simply the
– “4800,” as if setting the standard to which all others had to conform.
It was an immediate hit. Once they began demonstrating the 4800 on customer
telephone circuits, it seemed no matter how bad the circuits were, the
modem worked perfectly, from the moment it powered up without any need
for adjustments or tuning. Codex began shipping the 4800 in January 1971, and
couldn't build units fast enough to meet demand. Which was good, for sales in 1970 were only $1.1 million,
down nearly 50% from 1969. They lost $3 million. If Forney had not succeeded,
Codex would surely have gone under.
Milgo, which had sales of nearly $14 million in 1970,
its second straight year of high double-digit growth, would be the most
impacted by Codex’s success. Milgo’s sales in 1971 would drop 35%.